What is an Operating System?
An operating system is a piece of software that manages all the resources of a computer system, both hardware, and software, and provides an environment in which the user can execute his/her programs conveniently and efficiently.
Operating system objectives:
● Execute user programs and make solving user problems easier
● Make the computer system convenient to use
● Use the computer hardware in an efficient manner
● Easy (ease of use)
● Personal computers
● Efficiency (allocation of appropriate resources)
● High-performance computers
● Energy saving
● Minor user interruptions
● Device is installed
Tasks offered by an Operating System
● Program implementation
The operating system loads a program into memory and executes the program. The program must be able to end its execution, either normally or abnormally.
● I/O Performance
I/O means any file or any specific I/O device. The program requires any I/O device while running. So the operating system must provide the required I/O.
● File system manipulation
The program needs to read a file or write a file. The operating system permits the program to operate on a file.
Data transfer between two processes is required for some time. Both processes are on one computer or different computers but connected through a computer network Communication may be implemented by two methods: shared memory and message passing.
● Error detection
An error may occur in the CPU, in the I/O device, or in the memory hardware. The operating system constantly needs to be aware of possible errors. It should take the appropriate action to ensure correct and consistent computing.
Operating System Types
● Single process operating system
A computer system that allows only one user to use the computer at a given time is known as a single-user system. The goals of such systems are maximizing user convenience and responsiveness, instead of maximizing the utilization of the CPU and peripheral devices.
Example: Windows, Apple Mac OS, etc.
● Batch-processing system
This type of operating system does not interact with the computer directly. There is an operator which takes similar jobs having the same requirement and groups them into batches. It is the responsibility of the operator to sort jobs with similar needs.
Example: Payroll System, Bank Statements
● Time-Sharing Operating System
The Time Shared Operating System is also known as the Multitasking Operating System. Time-sharing operating systems implement CPU scheduling and multi-programming systems which deliver to every user a small piece of operating time.
Examples: UNIX, Multics, Linux, Windows 2000 server, etc.
● Distributed Operating System
The distributed operating system allows the distribution of entire systems on a couple of center processors, and it serves multiple real-time products as well as multiple users.
Examples: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Ubuntu, Linux(Apache Server), etc.
● Real-Time Operating System
Real-time systems are used when strict time requirements are placed on the operation of a processor or the flow of data. These are used to control a device in a dedicated application.
Examples: Scientific experiments, medical imaging systems, industrial control systems, weapon systems, robots, air traffic control systems, etc.
● Network Operating System
Network Operating System is a computer operating system that facilitates to connection and communication of various autonomous computers over a network. An Autonomous computer is an independent computer that has its local memory, hardware, and O.S. It is self-capable to perform operations and processing for a single user. They can either run the same or different O.S.
Example: Microsoft Windows Server 2003, Microsoft Windows Server 2008, UNIX, Linux, Mac OS X, Novell NetWare, BSD, etc
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